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Please note that the physiological activity of the ingredient(s) described herein is supported by the referenced clinical trial reports. Marketers of finished products containing the ingredient(s) described herein are responsible for determining whether claims made for such products are lawful and in compliance with the laws of the country in which they will market the products.



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Bitter melon extract attenuating hepatic steatosis may be mediated by FGF21 adn AMPK/Sirt1 signaling in mice.

Yu Y et al.
Sci Rep. 2013 Nov 05. 3(3142): 1-8.
A murine model examining Factor 21™ showed significant reductions in body weight, fasting plasma glucose, insulin, and FGF21 concentration as well as liver FGF21 and TG content in mice fed a high fat diet. Researchers pose that Factor 21™ supplementation may contribute to either increased energy, reduced caloric absorption from the gut, or a combination of both.

AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) controls the aging process via an integrated signaling network.

Salminen A and Kai Kaarniranta.
Ageing Res Rev. 2012 Apr. 11(2): 230-241. doi: 10.1016/j.arr.2011.12.005
The review explains that emerging studies indicate the responsiveness of AMPK signaling declines with age. The loss of sensitivity of AMPK activation to cellular stress impairs metabolic regulation, increases oxidative stress, and reduces autophagic clearance. These age-related changes activate innate immune responses in the body.

FGF21 signaling pathway and metabolic traits - Genetic association analysis.

Kaess BM et al.
Eur J Hum Genet. 2010 Dec. 18(12): 1344-1348. EPub 2010 Aug 18. doi: 10.1038/ejhg.2010.130
FGF21 binds to FGFR1, 2 and 3; this study demonstrates that variations in FGFR2 might be associated with low cholesterol in people of white European ancestry.

Aging-associated reductions in AMP-activated protein kinase activity and mitochondrial biogenesis.

Reznick RM et al.
Cell Metab. 2007 Feb 07. 5(2): 151-156. doi: 10.1016/j.cmet.2007.01.008
Recent studies suggest that aging-associated reductions in AMPK activity may be an important contributing factor in reduced mitochondrial function and dysregulated intracellular lipid metabolism associated with aging.

FGF-21 as a novel metabolic regulator.

Kharitonenkov A et al.
J Clin Invest. 2005 Jun. 115(6): 1627-1635. doi:10.1172/JCI23606
FGF21 was discovered to be a potent regulator of glucose uptake in mice and primary human adipocytes. It was concluded that FGF21 was a novel component in the promotion of healthy metabolic support.

Unpublished Internal Report

An in vitro examination of the effects of varying concentrations of Factor 21 on AMPK activity in 3t3-L1 adipocytes compared to AICAR (Acadesine/AICA ribose, a cell permeable activator of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Results indicated a dose-dependent induction of pAMPK up to 250ug/mL. The bell shaped results were indicative of some receptor induced activation.