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Effect of herbal combination in low bone mass density patients.

Dhatrak S et al.
Int J Drug Discov Technol. 2011. 2(1): 9-14.
In this double blind, randomized, placebo control trial in women (45-60 years old) with low BMD identified by DEXA scan (n=30), supplementation of an herbal combination containing Calzbone® showed significant improvement in bone density parameters namely BMD, T score, and Z score, while also showing a reduction in serum total ALP activity (most commonly used biochemical markers to assess bone turnover (formation and resorption)) in the active treatment group compared to placebo. During the six-month period of this study, BMD was found to increase by 2.74 % in the Calzbone® group.

Efficacy of Cissus quadrangularis [Calzbone®] in perimenopausal low bone density women.

Goswami SS et al.
Antiseptic. 2011. 108(10): 504-506.
This study was done to evaluate efficacy and safety of Calzbone® in perimenopausal low bone mass density (BMD) women, identified by DEXA scan (45-55 years old, n=40), at the dose of one capsule three times a day for six months. A significant improvement in bone density parameters, BMD, T score, and Z score with a 17% improvement in bone density was reported at the conclusion of the study, indicating a decreased future fracture risk. Serum total ALP activity was found to decrease significantly at the end of the study compared to baseline. Calzbone® was well tolerated.

Mechanism of action of bisphosphonates.

Rezka AA and Rodan GA.
Curr Rheumatol Rep. 2003 Feb. 5(1): 65-74.
Alendronate is a bisphosphonate; this study demonstrates that nitrogen-containing bisphosphonates prevent spine and nonvertebral fractures associated with postmenopausal and glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis through osteoclast inhibition, leading to reduced bone turnover, increased bone mass, and improved mineralization.

Effect of herbal combination containing Cissus quadrangularis [Calzbone®] in fracture healing.

Thawani V et al.
Antiseptic. 2002 Sep. 99(9): 345-347.
In this open pilot study, an herbal combination containing 250mg of Calzbone® was administered in one capsule three times a day to ten patients with fractures of long bones of the leg and whose fracture had been fixed with an interlocking nail. The average fracture healing time for these patients, which is known to normally be 16-20 weeks, was reduced to 12-14 weeks. Calzbone® was well tolerated.

Strong bones in later life: Luxury or necessity?

Delmas PD and Fraser M.
Bull World Health Organ. 1999. 77: 416.
This paper discusses the widespread prevalence of osteoporosis in the world today, calling it a “global problem” and spelling out a need for interventions that can prevent or help diagnose osteoporosis early.

Clinical consequences of vertebral fractures.

Ross PD.
Am J Med. 1997. 103(2A): S30-S43.
Emphasizes the variability and consequences of vertebral fractures, and spells out the clinical significance.

Randomized trial of effect of alendronate on risk of fracture in women with existing vertebral fractures.

Black DM et al.
Lancet. 1996 Dec 07. 348(9041): 1535-1541.
2027 women with existing vertebral fractures were split into two groups; the study group received alendronate, and the control group received a placebo for 3 years. The risk of any clinical fracture was lower in the alendronate versus placebo group, and for clinically apparent vertebral fractures, there were 23 in the alendronate group compared to 50 in the placebo.

Growth factors and the regulation of bone remodeling.

Canalis E, McCarthy T and Centrella M.
J Clin Invest. 1988. 81: 277.
This paper lists major growth factors and how they play into the regulation of bone remodeling, including post fracture.